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Energy and the Environment: Sources, technologies, and impacts Pedagogy This book is written in a level suitable as a textbook for introductory course in energy and environment for undergraduate students with very little mathematics or science background, it can be read by anyone interested in technical, political, environmental, and economical issues related to energy. To make the text appropriate for engineering and science students, additional topics are included in the appendices and in various boxes. The manuscript is divided into seventeen chapters, two appendices, and a list of glossaries. In Chapter 1, we introduce the general concepts related to energy and its sources, reserves, production and patterns of use. Chapter 2 deals with mechanical forms of energy and the concepts of work, power, and simple machines. Wind power and hydro power are two aspects of mechanical energy and are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. We then introduce chemical forms of energy, and its storage as biomass through photosynthesis (Chapter 5), or as fossil fuels: oil, coal, and natural gas (Chapter 6). The environmental consequences of fossil fuel use are discussed in Chapter 7. In Chapter 8, we show how chemical energy can be converted to thermal energy through combustion and introduce the reader to concepts of temperature, heat, and thermodynamics. Furthermore, we show how these concepts can be used to design practical machines ranging from internal combustion engines and electricity-generating power plants to refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. Geothermal energy (Chapter 9) is one source that provides thermal energy directly without the need to burn biomass or fossil fuel to produce heat. Depending on the temperature of the geothermal source, either hot water or steam is available. The radiation from the sun can also be used as a source of heat and light to us in our residential and commercial buildings, or to generate electricity and is covered in Chapter 10. Nuclear energy has not only been a convenient source of energy to produce electricity for our daily use, but is also used to develop nuclear weapons that threaten our very survival. The mechanisms of energy release through fission and fusion reactions, and benefits and dangers of radiation exposure are discussed in Chapters 11 and 12 respectively. In Chapter 13, we review the basic concepts related to energy storage, in particular that in the form of electricity. Electricity can be generated indirectly in power plants or directly as in photovoltaics and magnetohydrodynamics. It can then be stored in batteries or fuel cells and used directly or transmitted through the power grids for end use. A short i review of transportation technologies is given in Chapter 14, and the various advantages and disadvantages of conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles are discussed. A brief review of modern economical concepts is given in Chapter 15, and used to evaluate merits of using different energy technologies. The economics of environment and costs associated with environmental damage and cleanup technologies are given in Chapter 16. In the final chapter (Chapter 17) we define sustainability from economists’ and environmentalists’ points of view, address issues associated with globalization, and offer a possible road map for a sustainable future. Each chapter is concluded with a list of additional resources, exercises, and one or more mini-projects. For easy reference all essential data, formulas, and unit conversions are compiled in four appendices and a glossary of terms at the end of the book. The book is structured in a highly modular form applicable to a wide range of audiences including engineering and science majors, liberal arts students, the general public and even high school students. Each chapter stands alone and the text can be taught in any order that the instructor deems suitable. Widely different curricula can be designed and tailored to any audience simply by selecting to focus on sections from different chapters without loss of generality. For example, an environmental engineering course may include a summary of various energy technologies, with emphasis on air pollution, radiation, and environmental economics. A science curriculum may emphasize various technologies and incorporate some engineering designs. Except for a few very simple equations, all equations are given in boxes labeled “Mathematical Interlude…” and can be excluded by nonscience, non-engineering majors. Additional information is also provided in capsulated forms in separate boxes titled, “Digging Deeper...”, “FYI...”, “Point/Counterpoints...”, and “Did You Know That...? ” In the course of writing the text, great care was taken to avoid excessive detail while emphasizing important physical concepts or important technical data. When such information is thought to be too advanced or of interest only to a specific audience, it is placed between two icons and indicating the beginning and end of such material. Depending on the audience, instructors can decide to eliminate all or part of these materials without loss of generality. Examples requiring some algebra are indicated in a similar manner. ii