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Energy and the Environment: Resources, Technologies, and Impacts SECOND EDITION May 2009 Reza Toossi, Ph.D., P.E. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department California State University, Long Beach VerVe Publishers, Inc. 11670 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 215 Los Angeles, CA 90049 United States of America Copyright © 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010. All rights reserved. No parts of this document may be translated, reproduced, or distributed in any forms or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of the VerVe Publishers and author. Registration Number TXu-270-020 Oct 1, 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission by Verve Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4276-1867-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2006926865 Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America on 100% recycled paper. Hope has two beautiful daughters: anger and courage; anger at the way things are, and courage to change them. ~ St. Augustine This book is dedicated to the people closest to my heart who inspired me, gave me the energy and provided me with the environment to complete this work. My father Mr. Hossein Toossi Ardakan, mother Safa, and beautiful daughter Tara Safa About the Author... Reza Toossi is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at CSULB. He received his B.S. degree from the Aryamehr (currently Sharif) University of Technology in Tehran, Iran and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. He continued his Post Doctoral research studies in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and joined the CSULB faculty in 1981. Dr. Toossi has worked both as a research scientist and consultant on various projects related to aqueous aerosols and droplets in the atmosphere, nuclear safety, sensor design, air pollution dispersion modeling, flame propagation, fluid mechanics, and fiber optics. His current interests include conducting research and teaching courses in heat transfer, combustion, hybrid-electric vehicles, hydrogen storage, environmental engineering, and renewable energy sources. Dr. Toossi is a member of ASME, ASEE, SAE, SPIE, AAPT, and TBP and a recipient of the 1995 CSULB Distinguished Faculty Scholarly and Creative Achievement, 1994/1995 Distinguished Faculty Teaching, and TRW Excellence in Teaching Awards.